What is an Acid?

 Acids are sour in taste, turn blue litmus red, and dissolve in water to release H+ ions.

Example: Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Acetic Acid (CH3COOH), Nitric Acid (HNO3) etc.

Properties of Acids:

a) Acids have a sour taste.

b) Turns blue litmus red.

c) Acid solution conducts electricity.

d) Release H+ ions in an aqueous solution.

Types of Acids: 

Acids are divided into two types on the basis of their occurrence i.e., Natural acids and Mineral acids.

(i) Natural Acids: 

Acids that are obtained from natural sources are called Natural Acids or Organic Acids.
Examples: Methanoic acid (HCOOH), Acetic acid (CH3COOH), Oxalic acid (C2H2O4) etc.

Organic Acids and their Sources
Acetic acidVinegar
Ascorbic acidGuava, amla
Citric acidLemon, orange and other citrus fruits
Lactic acidSour milk, curd
Methanoic acidAnt sting, nettle sting
Oxalic acidTomato
Tartaric acidTamarind

(ii) Mineral Acids: Acids that are prepared from minerals are known as Mineral Acids Example; Inorganic acids, man-made acids or synthetic acid are also known as Mineral Acids.
Example: Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Nitric acid (HNO3), Carbonic acid (H2CO3), Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) etc.

see also: Neutralization Reactions

Chemical Properties of Acid:
(i) Reaction of acids with metal: Acids give hydrogen gas along with respective salt when they react with a metal.
Metal + Acid → Salt + Hydrogen
Hydrogen gas and zinc chloride are formed when hydrochloric acid reacts with zinc metal.

Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 2 1

(ii) Reaction of acids with metal carbonate: Acids give carbon dioxide gas and respective salts along with water when they react with metal carbonates.
Metal carbonate + Acid → Salt + Carbon dioxide + Water
Hydrochloric acid gives carbon dioxide gas, sodium chloride along with water when reacts with sodium carbonate.

Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 2 3

iii) Reaction of acid with hydrogen carbonates (bicarbonates): Acids give carbon dioxide gas, respective salt and water when they react with metal hydrogen carbonate.
Acid + Metal hydrogen carbonate → Salt + Carbon dioxide + Water
Sulphuric acid gives sodium sulphate, Carbon dioxide gas and water when it reacts with sodium bicarbonate.

Acids Bases and Salts Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 2 6

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